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This backbone network can then be used to broadcast packets throughout the ad hoc network This election can be made a number of ways as will be described below. For example, according to one embodiment, each Gateway M520 Conexant Modem forwards the attribute message to other nodes in the network until the BMN C receives an attribute message from each node in the ad hoc network.

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According to another embodiment, a two step election process is used. This can be done, for example, by selecting the node having the highest WV as the candidate BRN for that group. Again, the BMN C can probabilistically elect at least one of the candidate nodes as a relay node based on a comparison of the WVs Gateway M520 Conexant Modem with each candidate node. In an alternative implementation, step is not performed, and at step Gateway M520 Conexant Modem least some or possibly all of the nodes can probalistically elect themselves based on a certain parameters such as selected status information or WV associated with the node. Such probabilistic self-election avoids the exchange of nomination and an excessive number of nodes elected to be broadcast relay nodes.

In the particular example shown in FIG.


However, in practical implementations, the number of nodes elected as BRNs will depend on the network configuration at any Gateway M520 Conexant Modem time, and an appropriate number of BRNs will be elected such that all nodes or substantially all nodes in the ad hoc network will be connected e. The other nodes e. Referring again to FIG.

If the received packet is a unicast packet rather than a broadcast packetthe node transmits Gateway M520 Conexant Modem received unicast packet to its appropriate neighbor node toward the intended destination. If the received packet is a broadcast packet, then node determines whether or not the node itself has been elected as a relay node. If the node is not a relay node, the node does not transmit the received packet to any other nodes.

However, if the node is one of the relay nodes, then it transmits the received broadcast packet to each of its neighbor nodes. For instance, in FIG.


In comparison to a flooding approach, the number of redundant transmissions can be reduced thereby improving the efficiency of the network by reducing wasted bandwidth. As noted above, in many cases the topology of the ad hoc network changes significantly over time. As time elapses the initially elected relay nodes e.

For example, a particular relay node might relocate such that the network becomes fragmented or damaged to the point that some Gateway M520 Conexant Modem the nodes in the network lose connectivity and are unable to receive broadcast message s. Steps can provide techniques for determining the connectivity of a network and for electing new relay nodes to repair the network and restore connectivity. At stepthe designated broadcast manager node C broadcasts a test message to all nodes A, B and DO in the network to periodically test the connectivity of nodes in the network This helps ensure the integrity of the backbone network provided by the broadcast relay nodes B, H, M. At stepeach node determines whether it received the test message within a predetermined time. In the example of FIG. In one embodiment, if the test message was received by each of the nodes A, B and DO, then the process loops back to step where the broadcast manager node C continues to periodically broadcast test messages to the nodes in the network In an alternative embodiment, if the test message was not received by one of the nodes A, B and DO, then at step new intermediate relay nodes can be elected to repair the network Specifically, each node which fails to receive the test message within a predetermined period of time, transmits a message to its neighbor nodes to request election of a broadcast relay node, electing at least one neighbor node that has received the test message within the predetermined period of time as a broadcast relay node, and the elected node sending a broadcast relay status announcement message to its neighbor nodes.

Attribute Message Parameters and Weighted Values WVs As noted above with respect to stepeach node generates an attribute message.

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The attribute message can Gateway M520 Conexant Modem a weighted value WV determined based on a number of parameters indicative of the node's relative priority for election as a relay node. Each node can use its associated parameters to compute its weighted value WV which can then potentially be transmitted in the attribute message. Each node can then evaluate the WVs of each neighbor node to determine a candidate Gateway M520 Conexant Modem desirability as a relay node.


For example, in one implementation, the parameters can include status information about a node. A probability of election can be associated with each parameter. The status information can include, for example: In other words, a node with very few neighbors nominates itself with high probability, since the need to become a BRN is likely to be high. However, when electing BRNs, a candidate with many neighbors is a better candidate and is therefore more likely to be elected as Gateway M520 Conexant Modem BRN.

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If the average Gateway M520 Conexant Modem is higher than the predetermined range, this indicates that the node is close to its neighbor nodes and therefore the need for it to serve as a relay is low. For example, in one embodiment, nodes in close proximity to infrastructure equipment e. These parameters can be fed into an algorithm implemented in the processor of each node. This algorithm can determine a weighted value WV associated with a particular node. Such an algorithm typically includes scaling factors for each parameter to adjust the relative importance of each parameter in determining the WV.

In one embodiment, the WV is a probability measure.

Initial Nomination of Relay Nodes In one embodiment, relay nodes are initially nominated Gateway M520 Conexant Modem subsequently elected. This method can help ensure the election of the most desirable node s as relay node s. At stepeach of the nodes deciding to nominate itself as a relay node candidate can transmit its attribute message to other nodes in the network.

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Gateway M520 Conexant Modem, in other implementations, each node can decide whether or not to nominate itself as a relay candidate depending on the relative likelihood of that node being elected as a relay node. Downnload Gateway M laptop drivers or install DriverPack Solution software Conexant AC-Link Audio. Download driver. Motorola SM56 Data Fax Modem. Drivers for laptop Gateway Gateway M there are 22 devices found for the Conexant, Conexant AC-Link Audio, Download CXT, PCI Modem, Download.

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