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Acrox UBH shell is divided into different subshells, which as atomic number increases are filled in roughly this order the Aufbau principle see table. Hence the structure of the table. Since the outermost electrons determine chemical properties, those Acrox UBH the same number of valence electrons are grouped together. Progressing through a group from lightest element to heaviest element, the outer-shell electrons those most readily accessible for participation in chemical reactions are all in the same type of orbital, with a similar shape, but with increasingly higher energy and average distance from the nucleus. For instance, the outer-shell or "valence" electrons of the first group, headed by hydrogen, all have one electron in an s orbital.

In hydrogen, that s orbital is in the lowest possible energy state of any atom, the first-shell orbital and represented by hydrogen's Acrox UBH in the first period of the table. In francium, the heaviest element of the group, the outer-shell electron is in the seventh-shell orbital, significantly further out Acrox UBH average from the nucleus than those electrons filling all the shells below it in energy. As another example, both carbon and lead have four electrons in their outer shell orbitals. Note that as atomic number i. The elements ununtrium, ununquadium, ununpentium, etc.

There is a system for naming them temporarily. In some groups, the elements have very similar properties and exhibit a clear trend in properties down the group. These groups tend to be given trivial unsystematic names, e. Although groups are the most common way of classifying elements, there are some regions of the periodic table where the horizontal trends and Acrox UBH in properties are more significant than vertical group trends.

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This can be true in the d-block or "transition metals"and especially for the f-block, where the lanthanides and actinides form two substantial horizontal Acrox UBH of elements. The s-block comprises the first two groups alkali metals and alkaline earth metals Acrox UBH well as hydrogen and helium. The p-block comprises the last six groups groups 13 through 18 and contains, among others, all of the semimetals. The d-block comprises This diagram shows the periodic table blocks. The f-block, usually offset below the rest of the periodic table, comprises the rare earth metals. Other The chemical elements are also grouped together in other ways.

Some of these groupings are often illustrated on the periodic table, such as transition metals, poor metals, and metalloids.


Other informal groupings exist, such as the platinum group and the noble metals. Periodicity of chemical properties The main value of the periodic table is the Acrox UBH to predict the chemical properties of an element based on its location on the table. It should be noted that the properties vary Acrox UBH when moving vertically along the columns of the table than when moving horizontally along the rows. Trends of groups Modern quantum mechanical theories of atomic structure explain group trends by proposing that elements within the same group have the same electron configurations in their valence shell, which is the most important factor in accounting for their similar properties.

Elements in the same group also show patterns in their atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity.

From top to bottom in a group, the atomic radii of the elements increase. Since there are Acrox UBH filled energy levels, valence electrons are found farther from the nucleus. From the top, each successive element has a lower ionization energy because it is easier to remove an electron since the atoms are less tightly bound. Acrox UBH


Similarly, a group will also see a top to bottom decrease in electronegativity due to an increasing distance between valence electrons and the nucleus. Moving Acrox UBH to right across a period, atomic radius usually decreases. This occurs because each successive element has an added proton and electron which causes the electron to be drawn closer to the nucleus. This decrease in atomic radius also causes the ionization energy to Periodic trend for ionization energy. Each period begins at a minimum for the alkali increase when moving from left to metals, and ends at a maximum for the noble gases. The more tightly bound an element is, the more energy is required to remove an electron.

Similarly, electronegativity will increase in the same manner as ionization energy because of the amount of pull that is exerted on the electrons by the nucleus. Electron affinity also shows a slight trend across a period.


Metals left side of a period generally have a lower electron affinity than nonmetals right side of a period with the exception of the noble gases. History InAntoine Lavoisier published a list of 33 chemical Acrox UBH.

Although Lavoisier grouped the elements into gases, metals, non-metals, and earths, chemists spent the following century searching for a more precise classification Acrox UBH. Lithium, sodium, and potassium, for example, were grouped together Acrox UBH being soft, reactive metals.

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